Saturday, May 23, 2020

The 13 Forms of Insect Antennae

Antennae are movable sensory organs on the head of most arthropods. All insects have a pair of antennae, but spiders have none. Insect antennae are segmented, and usually located above or between the eyes. How Are They Used? Antennae serve different sensory functions for different insects. In general, the antennae might be used to detect odors and tastes, wind speed and direction, heat and moisture, and even touch. A few insects have auditory organs on their antennae, so theyre involved in hearing. In some insects, the antennae may even serve a non-sensory function, such as grasping prey, flight stability, or courtship rituals. Shapes Because antennae serve different functions, their forms vary greatly. In all, there are about 13 different antennae shapes, and the form of an insects antennae may be an important key to its identification. Aristate Aristate antennae are pouch-like, with a lateral bristle. Aristate antennae are most notably found in the Diptera (true flies.) Capitate Capitate antennae have a prominent club or knob at their ends. The term capitate derives from the Latin caput, meaning head. Butterflies (Lepidoptera)  often have capitate form antennae. Clavate The term clavate comes from the Latin  clava, meaning club. Clavate antennae terminate in a gradual club or knob (unlike the capitate antennae, which end with an abrupt, pronounced knob.) This antennae form is found most often in beetles, such as in carrion beetles. Filiform The term filiform comes from the Latin filum, meaning thread. Filiform antennae are slender and thread-like in form. Because the segments are of uniform widths, there is no taper to filiform antennae. Examples of insects with filiform antennae include: rock crawlers (order Grylloblattodea)gladiators (order Mantophasmatodea)angel insects (order Zoraptera)cockroaches (order Blattodea) Flabellate Flabellate  comes from the Latin flabellum, meaning fan. In flabellate antennae, the terminal segments extend laterally, with long, parallel lobes that lie flat against one another. This feature looks like a folding paper fan. Flabellate (or flabelliform) antennae are found in several insect groups within the Coleoptera, the Hymenoptera, and the Lepidoptera. Geniculate Geniculate antennae are bent or hinged sharply, almost like a knee or elbow joint. The term geniculate derives from the Latin genu, meaning knee. Geniculate antennae are found mainly in ants or bees. Lamellate The term lamellate comes from the Latin lamella, meaning a thin plate or scale. In lamellate antennae, the segments at the tip are flattened and nested, so they look like a folding fan. To see an example of lamellate antennae, look at a scarab beetle. Monofiliform Monofiliform comes from the Latin monile, meaning necklace. Moniliform antennae look like strings of beads. The segments are usually spherical, and uniform in size. Termites (order Isoptera) are a good example of insects with moniliform antennae. Pectinate The segments of pectinate antennae are longer on one side, giving each antennae a comb-like shape. Bipectinate antennae look like two-sided combs. The term pectinate derives from the Latin pectin, meaning comb. Pectinate antennae are found in some beetles and sawflies. Plumose The segments of plumose antennae have fine branches, giving them a feathery appearance. The term plumose derives from the Latin pluma, meaning feather. Insects with plumose antennae include some of the true flies, such as mosquitoes, and moths. Serrate The segments of serrate antennae are notched or angled on one side, making the antennae look like a saw blade. The term serrate derives from the Latin serra, meaning saw. Serrate antennae are found in some beetles. Setaceous The term setaceous comes from the Latin seta, meaning bristle. Setaceous antennae are bristle-shaped and tapered from the base to the tip. Examples of insects with setaceous antennae include mayflies (order Ephemeroptera) and dragonflies and damselflies (order Odonata). Stylate Stylate  comes from the Latin  stylus, meaning pointed instrument. In stylate antennae, the final segment terminates in a long, slender point, called a style. The style may be hairlike but will extend from the end and never from the side. Stylate antennae are found most notably in certain true flies of the suborder Brachycera (such as robber flies, snipe flies, and bee flies.) Source: Triplehorn, Charles A. and Johnson, Norman F. Borror and DeLongs Introduction to the Study of Insects. 7th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004, Boston.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Roman Salute Morituri te salutant

As the toga-wearing combatants face each other across an unforgiving circle of sand, they turn toward their laurel-wreathed eminence, snacking on grapes, and bellow: â€Å"Ave, Imperator: Morituri te salutant!† This staple of swords-and-sandals fiction, the gladiator’s salute to his Emperor, in fact likely never happened. Only a handful of Roman historians, long after the fact, mention the phrase — literally, â€Å"Hail, Emperor, those who are about to die salute you† — and there’s little indication that it was in common usage in gladiatorial combat or any other games in ancient Rome. Nonetheless, â€Å"Morituri te salutant† has gained considerable currency in both popular culture and academia. Russell Crowe mouths it in the film â€Å"Gladiator,† and it’s used over and over by heavy metal bands (most cheekily by AC/DC, who tweaked it â€Å"For those about to about to rock, we salute you.†). Origin of the Phrase Where did the phrase â€Å"Morituri te salutant† and its variations (†¦morituri te salutamus, or â€Å"we salute you†) come from? According to the historian Suetonius’s Life of the Divine Claudius, the account of that emperor’s reign in his compendium The 12 Caesars, written around 112 A.D., it stems from a peculiar event. Claudius had commanded an immense public works project, the draining of Lake Fucino for agricultural land. It took 30,000 men and 11 years to complete. In honor of the feat, the emperor ordered up a naumachia — a mock sea-battle involving thousands of men and ships — to be held on the lake before it was emptied. The men, thousands of criminals otherwise to be hanged, hailed Claudius thusly: â€Å"Ave, Imperator: Morituri te salutant!† upon which the emperor replied â€Å"Aut non† — â€Å"Or not.† After this, the historians disagree. Suetonius says that the men, believing themselves pardoned by Claudius, refused to fight. The emperor ultimately cajoled and threatened them into sailing against one another. Cassius Dio, who wrote about the event in the 3rd century B.C., said the men merely pretended to fight until Claudius lost patience and commanded them to die. Tacitus mentions the event, some 50 years after it happened, but doesn’t mention the plea by the gladiators (or more precisely, naumachiarii). He relates, though, that a large number of prisoners were spared, having fought with the valor of free men. Use in Popular Culture In addition to the above-mentioned films and rock albums, Te morituri†¦ is also invoked in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and James Joyce’s Ulysses.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

“The Lady or the Tiger” What Really Happened Free Essays

Dustin Powers Mr. Lamon AP Language 3 December 2012 â€Å"The Lady or the Tiger†: What really happened? The Lady or the Tiger, a captivating short story of love and loss, teases your imagination by integrating the rising action at the end of the story only to leave you to make your own interpretation of how the falling action concludes. The author uses a third person omniscient narrator so to make it seem as though the he doesn’t even know how the story truly ends. We will write a custom essay sample on â€Å"The Lady or the Tiger†: What Really Happened? or any similar topic only for you Order Now The finale to the short story has been conversation of much debate. What is behind door he opens? Does he die on the princess’s accord? What happens, no one essentially knows, but him dying is the only logical ending that could subsist. The tale starts out with a fascinating introduction by classifying the king as â€Å"semi barbaric† â€Å"florid† and â€Å"untrammeled,† but on the contrary the narrator begins to describe him as â€Å"†¦somewhat polished and sharpened by the progressiveness of distant Latin neighbors†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Although it is not directly stated where the tale takes place, one can pin point the story to Medieval Europe c. 00-400 AD, a very tumultuous time. Influenced greatly by the Roman Empire, as they were a prominent society at the time, the European continent was at a crossroads between the liberalism of the Latin culture, and the less enlightened methodologies that were prerequisite to the changes at the time. This setting is what the root of the king’s brutality and the passing of th ese traits develop. The fictional account tells of the king’s daughter being â€Å"†¦as blooming as his most florid fancies, and with a soul as fervent and imperious as his own. As unlikely as it seems the princess seems to create a bond with a young man that is of â€Å"lower station† than she. This short lived relationship of a few months was cut to an abrupt end by the Barbaric King. Never once does the story mention the princess make any attempt of arguing the innocence of her lover. This abandonment can only be explained by her savage nature. It says that she could have possibly never loved him in the first place, and that maybe she was just using him to fill a void her over protecting father created by sheltering her from finding a ompanion. With the slightest possibility that the arrogant and haughty princess had come to truly love this man then she would know for a fact that he would be safe of this cruel justice, because as the decision was left up to fa te then there would be no question of what was coming out of the door. If she truly had any admiration for her lover, and trust of his innocence in his love then she would allow him to make his choice uncompromised by her instruction. She would allow him to open the door to the chamber with the â€Å"fair maiden†. But she did not. With a slight notion to her right she indicates which door needed to be opened. Turning to face his fate the young man opened the door to his right leaving his destiny in the hands of the demented princess. Possibly scared of his innocence and fate’s compassion, considering the true love he possessed for her, she directed him to door with the lion. This is just a sadistic favor of disposing this inconvenience for her father. Once again if the princess did actually truly have feelings for him then she had proven to be very jealous of the lady behind the door. While if she had not had those impulses toward him the animosity she had toward the damsel was strictly out of the hatred of the young girls lust over one of her possessions. Either way it was not left unknown that she had much discontent with her by saying, â€Å"Often had she seen, or imagined that she had seen, this fair creature throwing glances of admiration upon the person of her lover, and sometimes she thought these glances were perceived, and even returned. With the princess in possession of the knowledge of the location of the tiger she had the power to control the future of both the young man and the young woman. The real or unreal passing of glances between the two would be the end of him, because the jealousy she had towards the maiden would cause an â€Å"If I can’t have you no one can† mentality. The princess couldn’t bear the thought of them being happy together so she sends him to the tiger. How to cite â€Å"The Lady or the Tiger†: What Really Happened?, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Forecasting and Managing Demand Operation Management

Question: Discuss about the Forecasting and Managing Demand of Operation Management. Answer: I have come across various facts while going through my course of operations management. The topic of forecasting and demand management evaluates various disciplines of operations management. The forecasting reflects an estimation of the future demands and the actual basis for the execution of planning and business decisions. The study of forecasting and managing demand critically highlights the different facts related to the supply and demand regarding the execution of industry process of the concerned firm. I have focused more on the application of the different disciplines of operations management related to the topic forecasting and managing demand. The topic reflects the desired fact that a good goal for forecasting techniques is merely for minimizing the deviation among the forecast and the real demands. Moreover, the concept of the supply and demand reflects that the balance regarding the demands of the products from the customers and its supply to those particular customers needs to be met in order to augment the considerable enlargement of the business. The proper management of demand facilitates the execution of the planning system as well as the effective use of the different resources in order to gain positive feedback and positive outcomes. There are certain threats within the execution of any business process where the supply and the demands of the concerned products need to be met, these are stock out, relationship with the respective customers, business loyalty and the sel ling of the products. It has been seen that the use of poor communication techniques with the customers and the inaccurate resonates of forecast significantly affects the complete business process. It is crucial to managing the different processes in any of the concerned firms and this study of the managing demand provides me the adequate information regarding the management of demand and supply. The studies of forecasting and matching demands have reflected the different purposes of forecasting which are supposed to be of immense importance for the growth and expansion of the business procedures of the firm. I have brought up the idea that the desired purpose of forecasting can be divided into short term and long term forecasting. Appropriate scheduling of the production, reduction in the cost of purchasing the different raw materials, determination of the suitable pricing policy, determining the sales targets as well as the establishment of incentives and controls are supposed to be the purposes for the short term forecasting. As per my knowledge is concerned, this short-term purposes for the short term forecasting needs to be considered while as to evaluate the significant expanding of the business procedures of the concerned enterprise. I have also investigated the long-term purposes of forecasting; it consists of planning for the new unit, planning for the financial need s of longer term and planning for the requirements of manpower. The study of forecasting managing demands provides desired strength and complete knowledge regarding the management of supply and demands which will be helpful for my future career and jobs. I particularly feel that there are some of the relevant innovative techniques related to the forecasting which will provide the desired idea in order to manage the work process in my future jobs. In order to acquire relevant information regarding the forecast, the different disciplines of operation management helped in evaluating the qualitative as well as the quantitative methods. I have come accrues two different types of a forecast, such as pyramid forecast and the forecasting process and these evaluate the importance for using these methods in future jobs. The study of forecast and managing demand evaluates my potential skills regarding the management of the demands and the needs of the customers in an effective way. There are many of the models which have been used for predicting the demand for regression analysis, market research, time series and the Delphi method. The demands management process has been considered to be of larger significance in order to manage the demands and the needs of the customers. The needs of the customers also needed to be prioritized as this will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the concerned firm. The high level and the low-level demands need to be understood as to bring out the preferred positive results for the organization. Consumer survey is another important process which provides desired means of feedback regarding the services provided by any organization. Therefore, the study increased my skills regarding the management of demands and forecasting of the different processes of the firm.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Admiral Togo Heihachiro in the Russo-Japanese War

Admiral Togo Heihachiro in the Russo-Japanese War Early Life Career of Togo Heihachiro: The son of a samurai, Togo Heihachiro was born in Kagoshima, Japan on January 27, 1848. Raised in the citys Kachiyacho district, Togo had three brothers and was educated locally. After a relatively peaceful childhood, Togo first saw military service at age fifteen when he participated in the Anglo-Satsuma War. The result of the Namamugi Incident and the murder of Charles Lennox Richardson, the brief conflict saw ships of the British Royal Navy bombard Kagoshima in August 1863. In the wake of the attack, the daimyo (lord) of Satsuma established a navy in 1864. With the creation of a fleet, Togo and two of his brothers quickly enlisted in the new navy. In January 1868, Togo was assigned to the side-wheeler Kasuga as a gunner and third-class officer. That same month, the Boshin War between supporters of the emperor and the forces of the shogunate commenced. Siding with the Imperial cause, the Satsuma navy quickly became engaged and Togo first saw action at the Battle of Awa on January 28. Remaining aboard Kasuga, Togo also took part in naval battles at Miyako and Hakodate. Following the Imperial triumph in the war, Togo was selected to study naval matters in Britain. Togo Studies Abroad: Departing for Britain in 1871 with several other young Japanese officers, Togo arrived in London where he received English language training and instruction in European customs and decorum. Detailed as a cadet to the training ship HMS Worcester at the Thames Naval College in 1872, Togo proved a gifted student who frequently engaged in fisticuffs when called Johnny Chinaman by his classmates. Graduating second in his class, he embarked as an ordinary seaman on the training ship HMS Hampshire in 1875, and circumnavigated the globe. During the voyage, Togo fell ill and his eyesight began to fail. Subjecting himself to a variety of treatments, some painful, he impressed his shipmates with his endurance and lack of complaint. Returning to London, doctors were able to save his eyesight and he began a study of mathematics with Reverend A.S. Capel in Cambridge. After traveling to Portsmouth for further schooling he then entering the Royal Naval College at Greenwich. During the course of his studies he was able to watch firsthand the construction of several Japanese warships in British shipyards. Conflicts at Home: Away during the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion, he missed the turmoil that it brought to his home region. Promoted to lieutenant on May 22, 1878, Togo returned home aboard the armored corvette Hiei (17) which had recently been completed in a British yard. Arriving in Japan, he was given command of Daini Teibo. Moving to Amagi, he closely watched Admiral Amà ©dà ©e Courbets French fleet during the 1884-1885 Franco-Chinese War and went ashore to observe French ground forces on Formosa. After rising to the rank of captain, Togo again found himself on the front lines at the start of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894. Commanding the cruiser Naniwa, Togo sank the British-owned, Chinese-chartered transport Kowshing at the Battle of Pungdo on July 25, 1894. While the sinking nearly caused a diplomatic incident with Britain, it was within the constraints of international law and showed Togo to be a master of understanding the difficult issues that could arise in the global arena. On September 17, he led Naniwa as part of the Japanese fleet at the Battle of the Yalu. The last ship in Admiral Tsuboi Kozos line of battle, Naniwa distinguished itself and Togo was promoted to rear admiral at the wars end in 1895. Togo in the Russo-Japanese War: With the conflicts end, Togos career began to slow and he moved through various appointments such as commandant of the Naval War College and commander of the Sasebo Naval College. In 1903, Navy Minister Yamamoto Gonnohyoe stunned the Imperial Navy by appointing Togo to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet, making him the nations preeminent naval leader. This decision caught the attention of Emperor Meiji who questioned the ministers judgment. With the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, Togo took the fleet to sea and defeated a Russian force off Port Arthur on February 8. As Japanese ground forces laid siege to Port Arthur, Togo maintained a tight blockade offshore. With the citys fall in January 1905, Togos fleet conducted routine operations while awaiting the arrival of the Russian Baltic Fleet which was steaming to the war zone. Led by Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky, the Russians encountered Togos fleet near the Straits of Tsushima on May 27, 1905. In the resulting Battle of Tsushima, Togo utterly destroyed the Russian fleet and earned the nickname the Nelson of the East from the Western media. Later Life of Togo Heihachiro: With the wars conclusion in 1905, Togo was made a Member of the British Order of Merit by King Edward VII and acclaimed around the world. Departing his fleet command, he became Chief of the Naval General Staff and served on the Supreme War Council. In recognition of his achievements, Togo was elevated to hakushaku (count) in the Japanese peerage system. Given the honorific title of fleet admiral in 1913, he was appointed to oversee the education of Prince Hirohito the following year. Acting in this role for a decade, in 1926, Togo became the only non-royal to be given the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. An ardent opponent of the 1930 London Naval Treaty, which saw Japanese naval power given a secondary role relative to the United States and Britain, Togo was further elevated to koshaku (marquis) by now-Emperor Hirohito on May 29, 1934. The following day Togo died at age 86. Internationally respected, Great Britain, the United States, the Netherlands, France, Italy, and China all sent warships to take part in a Tokyo Bay naval parade in the late admirals honor. Selected Sources Portraits of Modern Japanese Leaders: Togo HeihachiroTogos Report of the Battle of TsushimaTime: Togo of Tsushima

Friday, March 6, 2020

Peroxidase Lab Report Essay Example

Peroxidase Lab Report Essay Example Peroxidase Lab Report Paper Peroxidase Lab Report Paper We were able to measure enzymatic activity by the change in absorbency per second with a spectrophotometer. By testing different concentrations of peroxides and its reaction rate in seconds, we were able to see that as the amount of enzyme increased the catalytic reaction also increased. The optimal amount of peroxides concentration to be used in the subsequent experiments was determined to be 1. 0 ml. Any amount above this would have caused the rate of absorbency to be too fast, making it too difficult to get accurate readings. Any amount below this would not have produced a reaction at an appreciable rate. (Dolphin, Fleck, Collect and Wastage, p. 76) In addition, our results show that a rise temperature and pH only increase the rate of reaction to a certain point before the reaction rate begins to decline dramatically. In the case of boiling of the enzyme there was no rate of reaction found whatsoever. A similar result was found when hydroxylation was added to the peroxides and it caused an inhibition reaction. Overall, the results show that the peroxides enzyme is sensitive with reference to the above factors in whether or not a reaction is catcalled. INTRODUCTION Enzymes are essential in the breakdown of certain materials or molecules that cannot be used by or are harmful to an organism as they are, into products that can be used or are not harmful for the organism. They are proteins and their structure consists of amino acids with a specific shape. Enzymes have an area called an active site where substrates (only a particular molecule or material to be converted) bind. When the substrate is bound to the active site on the whole entity becomes an enzyme-substrate complex. The substrates covalent bond is disrupted and this chemical change constructs a new product from the original abstract while leaving the enzyme unaffected. Once this new product is released, the enzyme can bind again with more of these molecules needing conversion. Sometimes the enzyme works with commences or cofactors such as vitamins or metallic ions to help the binding process. In other cases competitive inhibitors are at work and prevent a substrate from being bound to the active site on the enzyme. The competitive inhibitor is similar enough to bind with the enzyme, but because it is not a perfect match, the enzyme then loses its ability to catalyst a reaction for that moment. In accordance with these properties, we ill see how certain factors affect the reaction rate of peroxides. For our purposes in this lab we used the enzyme peroxides extracted from a turnip. Peroxides, along with the help of its iron ion cofactor, catalysts harmful hydrogen peroxide (H2O) into a harmless compound and water. In order to follow the rate of reaction for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, we used ecological, a colorless dye, which donates electrons and turns brown when it is oxidized. We used this dye so that we could measure the absorbency with the spectrophotometer as the hydrogen peroxide is being broken down and the lour change gets stronger over specific time intervals. We developed several null hypotheses for these experiments: 1) The amount of enzyme added to the reaction will not affect the rate of reaction. 2) Temperature will not affect the enzymatic activity. 3) pH will not affect enzymatic activity. 4) Similar molecule to substrate will not affect enzymatic activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials and methods are taken from Lab Topic 7 in the Biological Investigations, 9th Edition. RESULTS Graph 1- Effects of Peroxides Amounts Graph 2 Temperature Effects on Peroxides Activity Graph 3 pH Effects on Peroxides Activity Graph 4 Boiled Peroxides Results Graph 5 Hydroxylation Results Graph 6 Optimum Temperature for Reaction Rate of Peroxides Graph 7 Optimum pH for Reaction Rate of Peroxides In Graph 1, Effects of Peroxides Amounts, it shows the difference in rates of reactions with different concentrations of peroxides in the solution Tubes 2 3 at 0. 5 ml, Tubes at 1. 0 ml and Tubes 6 7 at 2. 0 ml, along with corresponding line slopes. Graph 2, Temperature Effects on Peroxides Activity, shows the difference in rates of reaction for 1. Ml peroxides at ICC, Room Temperature ICC, ICC and ICC along with their corresponding line slopes. For Graph 3, pH Effects on Peroxides Activity, it shows the rates of reaction at pH 3, pH 5, pH 7 and pH 9, along with its corresponding line slopes at 1. 0 ml peroxides. Graph 4, Boiled Peroxides Results, shows the rates of reaction for 1. 0 ml between a Normal Extract of peroxides and a Boiled Extract of peroxides, both with their corresponding line slopes. In Graph 5, Hydroxylation Results, it shows rates of reaction for 1. Ml between a Normal Extract of peroxides without hydroxylation and a Hydroxylation-treated Extract of peroxides. Graph 6, Optimum Temperature for Reaction Rate of Peroxides, shows the slope of the line at each temperature. Lastly, Graph 7, Optimum pH for Reaction Rate of Peroxides, shows the slope of the line at each level of PH. DISCUSSION The significance of the observations in testing the enzyme peroxides and its rate of breaking down hydrogen peroxide helped us to make a decision as to whether to accept or reject our hypotheses in the experiment. The amount of peroxides concentration had a direct relationship to how slowly or how quickly a reaction took place. This result allowed us to reject our hypothesis that the mount of enzyme added to the reaction will not affect the rate of reaction. This test was important so that we could ascertain the best amount of concentration to use in the subsequent experiments with the spectrophotometer set at absorbency 470 NM and timed recordings at 20-second intervals for a total of 2 minutes. At 0. 5 ml of peroxides the reaction time was too slow thus no appreciable line or slope was rendered to measure the reaction with any accuracy. Conversely, it was a challenge to get accurate absorbency readings at 2. 0 ml of peroxides because the pace of the reaction appreciated so quickly and hen met equilibrium. At 1. 0 ml of peroxides the reaction time rendered an appreciable line and slope making it easier to record the absorbency every 20 seconds for 2 minutes and ultimately, the best concentration for use in the next experiments. It is known that when heat is applied to molecules, they move faster and collide more as the temperature rises. This is also true for the enzyme peroxides and its substrate until the temperature reaches ICC and then the reaction begins to taper off and it dives down drastically at ICC when the hydrogen bonds holding peroxides structure together begin to break. The results of this test confirm the same by the slope of each line and thereby we are able to reject our hypothesis that temperature has no effect on peroxides rate of reaction. At ICC the slope of the line is 0. 0071, at Room Temperature ? ICC the slope is 0. 0094, at ICC the slope is 0. 091 and at ICC it is 0. 0052. This is easily seen on the derivative Graph 6: Optimum Temperature for Reaction Rate of Peroxides attached. It should be mentioned here that in class it was decided from the table of results on the board for this experiment that ICC was the optimal temperature. In addition, it is difficult to fully see the results from the line graph number 2. As we can see here from the derivative graph, that just numbers without the prop er graphs can be misleading and it is necessary to take further steps in clarifying the observations and results. As for pH effects on peroxides activity, Graph 3, indicates that the amount of acidity or bassinets to a solution changes the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and thereby changes the ability to bind with the substrate in an effective manner. Here we tested the null hypothesis: pH will not affect enzymatic activity. The results from Graph 3: pH Effects on Peroxides Activity indicate that the more acidic pH 3 level disrupted the enzymes ability to bind with its substrate and its reaction rate did not appreciate noticeably. As the solution became less acid at pH 5, the greatest reaction efficiency resulted. Once the pH was at 7 and beyond the reaction rate for peroxides and its binding ability became poor and the reaction rate declined. Again, it was necessary to do a derivative graph to see the slope results clearly. In Graph 7: Optimum pH for Reaction Rate of Peroxides, the rate of reaction increased drastically from pH 3 with a slope f 0. 00007 to pH 5 with a slope of 0. 0055 and then trails off as the bassinets increases at pH 7 with a slope of 0. 047 and plummets as it reaches pH 9 with a slope of 0. 0022. We can see the optimal pH is 5 in this experiment and we were able to refute our null hypothesis because it was shown that pH does affect peroxides reaction rates. In boiling the peroxides extract, the result was that no reaction activity was found. As mentioned in our book by Dolphin, Fleck, Collect and Wastage, the enzyme is denatured because the high temperature broke a large number of hydroge n bonds, which dramatically changed the structure of the enzyme permanently (82). A denatured enzyme cannot catalyst a reaction and this result appears evident on Graph 4: Boiled Peroxides Results. The comparison between a normal extract of peroxides and a boiled extract of peroxides shows that zero absorbency with no appreciation was yielded over the two minutes for the boiled extract as opposed to the normal extract that did yield an appreciable line with a slope of 0. 0099. Again, we can refute our null hypothesis of temperature will not affect the enzymatic activity. Finally, a null hypothesis that a similar molecule to substrate will not affect enzymatic activity was tested.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

What is considered as Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

What is considered as - Essay Example For someone keen in film studies, it’s clear that the few chosen characteristics of cult cinema are often in opposition with those of mainstream cinema as well as the differences in their audience. Irrespective of the different opinions in theorizing cult cinema, several of its features are inarguable; a cult film is defined through a sub cultural ideology, which marks it to exist in opposition to the mainstream because of their niche appeal, and composed of identifiable textual divergence. Besides their nature to appeal to viewers’ subversive instincts, the sense of nonconformity and irrationality in the film, Bentley-Baker reiterates Corrigan and White depiction of cult films as â€Å"ephemeral or non commercial films that, despite their lack of traditional cultural value, have survived to yield fascinating glimpses of the past† (2010). Some consider it a private genre with egregiously eccentric characters, often featured for exhibition at odd hours like midnight and known to trigger passionate attachments. Criteria set to establish cult films entail marginality, violation of boundaries (transgression), composed of iconography and cause self identified audience group among others. The popular genre of horror films together with fantasy and science fiction films are the few that lend themselves for the treatment of cult cinema. Based on the newly formed idealist and dystopian characteristics of horror films, especially the slasher sub genre, they have acted as the intersection with, or a vehicle in production of cult films. Looking into it, you will establish that most modern directors and film makers began with mastery of horror movies, before graduating in cult film makers. Slasher films which gained popularity from the 80s is composed of generative storylines involving psychopathic killers trailing on selective victims, has formulaic portrayals of violence, drenched in taboos and with